Andros, Area 51 and Diego Garcia
Andros has been likened to Area 51 and Diego Garcia. Are they similar?
Area 51 is in Nevada, high up in the desert, ringed by mountains, and 75 miles north of Las Vegas. To the northwest of Area 51 is the almost 5,000 square miles of the Nevada Test and Training Range; and to its south is the Nellis Air Range and Creech Air Force Base. Area 51’s various facilities are constructed by, and over, a dry lakebed known as Groom Lake. It is, however, only one of a number of similar areas which are, or have been, used by such government organisations as the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), the Air Force and Navy, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defence Intelligence Agency (DIA), the National Photographic Interpretation Center (NPIC), the National Reconnaissance Officer (NRO). The AEC is now called the Department of Energy.
The area in Nevada, generally known as the Nevada Test Site (now known as the Nevada National Security Site), was first established by the Atomic Energy Commission in 1951 on the orders of President Truman. Between 1951 and September 1992, more than 100 nuclear devices and weapons above-ground, and 830 underground in tunnels and vertical shafts, were detonated and exploded at the Nevada Test Site, many as near as five miles northwest of Area 51. Originally an animal sanctuary, the site became contaminated with plutonium-239; despite efforts at cleaning up the site by thousands of Army personnel, one of the “dirty” bombs exploded in 1957, is reported to have a half-life of 20,000 years. (By 1955, the United States already had a stockpile of 2,280 nuclear bombs.) Altogether, the United States is said to have constructed more than 75,000 nuclear bombs!
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In 1954, President Eisenhower directed Richard Bissell, Assistant Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, to find a secret location to assemble and construct new spy planes, in co-operation with the Lockheed Corporation, to investigate, and spy on the Soviet Union’s own nuclear weapons programme.
And, so in the winter of 1955, Bissell together with CIA colleague Herbert Miller, and Lockheed Corporation aerodynamist Clarence Johnson, flew over Area 51 in search of a dry lakebed called Groom Lake.
Under extreme secrecy, Area 51 was established in which the CIA, in co-operation with the Air Force and the Lockheed Corporation, could develop, assemble and test reconnaissance spy planes originally called Utility-2 (or just U-2). A hangar, and later various buildings, were constructed on the site. The U-2s were transported to Groom Lake runway, in sections, inside giant C-124 transport planes and then assembled on site. According to Jeffrey Richelson in his The U.S. Intelligence Community (p.157), more than 55 U-2s in various versions are known to have been built, all presumably at Area 51. There were numerous crashes. By 1956, the CIA
deployed three U-2s, known as Detachment A, to fly over the Soviet Union from the RAF airbase at Lakenheath, in Suffolk, in England. (See also Ranelagh.) And, by July 1958, five RAF pilots, working undercover of the Meteorological Office in London, and paid through a SIS secret bank account, were sent to America to train as U-2 pilots in Nevada. One of them, Squadron-Leader Christopher Walker, was killed in a crash during training over Area 51 (see Dorril, p.659).
Soviet MIG fighter jets could climb to a maximum of 45,000 feet; the U-2s flew to more than 60,000 feet (Guardian, 4 August 1997). They flew at about 500 miles per hour, and had a range of around 4,000 miles.
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By 1960, the CIA and Air Force had produced, assembled and tested 12 airplanes (A-12) which for some perverse reason they codenamed Oxcart, at Area 51 which could fly five times as fast as the U-2s, at 2,300 miles per hours, at an altitude of almost 100,000 feet, and had a range of more than 4,000 miles. Jacobsen
“In total, 2,850 Oxcart flights would be flown out of Area 51 over a period of six years. Exactly how many of these flights generated UFO reports is not known, but the ones that prompted UFO sightings created the same kinds of problems for the CIA as they had in the previous decade with the U-2, only with elements that were seemingly more explicable. With Oxcart [A-12], commercial airline pilots flying over Nevada or California would look up and see the shiny, reflective bottom of the Oxcart whizzing by high overhead at triple-sonic speeds and think, UFO. When the Oxcart flew at 2,300 miles per hour, it was going approximately five times as fast than a commercial airplane…Seventeen miles higher up the sun was shining brightly on the Oxcart.”
Not surprisingly, they were thought to be from outer-space.
In 1962, Lockheed secured a contract to develop unmanned vehicles, or drones, Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs) to give them their correct name, called Tagboard, which were tested at Area 51. Drones were first launched from an aircraft, already moving faster than sound. Updated, and tested at Area 51, pilotless drones have been used, first for reconnaissance and later for attacking specific targets in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Iran, Kosovo, Niger, Pakistan, Somalia, Yemen, as well as Libya. Controlled by so-called pilots, sitting more than 8,000 miles away in front of computers at Creech Air Force Base in Nevada, south of Area 51, both the U.S. and Britain’s RAF have caused considerable damage, as well as killing and injuring many people. Although the drones’ programmes are still classified, the CIA and US Air Force, and RAF, have been concerned with what they term “collateral damage”. Many drones go astray. The U.S. has about 8,000 drones.
According to the Times (29 October 2011), United States MQ9 Reaper drones, armed with Hellfire missile and satellite-guided bombs, and with a range of 1,150 miles, are based at, and operating from, an airfield at Arba Minch, a remote mountain area in southwest Ethiopia, as well as at bases in Oman and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Americans also have their
largest permanent base at Camp Lemonnier, in Djibouti, at the entrance to the Gulf of Aden,
The operation of drones is, however, not simple. Each aircraft requires a team of more than 150 personnel, maintaining and repairing it, as well as the collection of radio signals (SIGINT), videos and “voluminous intelligence necessary to prompt a single strike” (International Herald Tribune, 3 October 2011). Indeed, the US Air Force spends at least $5billion a year just on its remotely piloted drone systems.
Writing in the Guardian (3 April 2012), Richard Norton-Taylor notes that “Drones, armed with cameras, and increasingly with bombs and missiles, are fast becoming a key weapon of modern warfare.” The CIA has dramatically increased the use of drones along the Afghan-Pakistan borders, as well as in Somalia and Yemen. Israel is in at the forefront of drone technology, says Norton-Taylor. He continues:
“The US-manufactured General Atomics MQ-Reaper is at the moment the RAF’s only armed unmanned aircraft. It can fly for more than 18 hours, has a range of 3,600 miles, and can operate at up to 15,000 meters (50,000 ft).
The Reapers, armed with Paveway bombs and four Hellfire missiles, are operated by RAF personnel based at Creech [Air Force Base] in Nevada. They are controlled by satellite datalink.”
Unlike the submarines tested at AUTEC/TOTO in Andros, the drones are not – as yet! – nuclear-powered, as they are prone to crash.
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Also tested at Area 51 were the F-117 Stealth bombers, developed and produced by Lockheed, and first named Nighthawk. Planned in the early 1970s, they were flight-tested, at night, during the 1980s for bomb-testing; an area designated Area 52, northwest of Area 51 was used. According to Annie Jacobsen (Area 51, p.343), Areas 51 and 52 worked in tandem.
Public access to Area 51 (as with AUTEC on Andros) is strictly forbidden. One notice states: “Photography of this area is prohibited. 18 U.S.C. 795”. Another, ominously, says: “WARNING. Restricted Area. It is unlawful to enter this area without permission of the Installation Commander. See Internal Security Act of 1950. U.S.C. 795. While on this Installation all personnel and the property under their control are subject to search. Use of deadly force authorized.” Indeed, trespassers have been arrested, put in leg-irons, strip-searched, heavily fined and even jailed for ignoring the warnings.
Not surprisingly, ever since the Area 51 base was established, people have reported seeing odd-looking objects in the sky. At first, both the U-2s and the Stealth bombers’ silver bodies reflected the rays of the sun, encouraging the sightings of “fiery objects”. Later, they were painted black to reduce so-called UFO sightings. Rumours of alien spacecraft – and little grey or green men from Mars – abounded. Originally, the CIA rubbished such claims. There were no flying saucers or aliens from outer space. No little men. They were not from Mars, or outer space. But they did, and do, exist.
In a report, “The CIA’s Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-90”, published on the 3rd of August 1997, the Agency admitted it had lied about the real nature of UFOs in the vicinity of Area 51 and elsewhere, to preserve secrecy during the Cold War. It admitted the validity of hundreds of sightings from the public, aviation experts and pilots. Initially, they were U-2s and Stealth bombers and, later, drones.
Commenting on the CIA report, the Guardian (4 August 1997) said: “The planes were built at Area 51, or Dreamland base in Nevada, whose existence the Pentagon still denies. The U-2s flew to more than 60,000 ft. and the Blackbird to 80,000 ft.”
The SR71 Blackbird reconnaissance aircraft was a futuristic aircraft which flew “on the edge of space”. Unfortunately, however, its weakness was that at top speed, it burned up more than 8,000 gallons of fuel every hour. On some flights, it had to be refuelled at least 5 times by 16 tankers!
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Way back in 1974, Victor Marchetti and John D. Marks in their book, The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence (p.67), revealed that CIA technicians worked with Lockheed at a secret site in Nevada, to develop the A11 and later the SR-71, although they did not locate the site at Area 51.
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There is, as I have already mentioned, the Bermuda Triangle, an area which includes Andros Island. There is, however, also the Nevada Triangle, located by Reno and the Sierra Nevada mountains to the northwest, Schell Creek to the northeast, and Spring Mountain and Las Vegas to the south. Area 51, Canyon Park and Bishops Airport are apparently within the Nevada Triangle, which comprises deserts, pine forests and, of course, mountains.
Timothy Good, in his Beyond Top Secret, writes:
“Area 51 at Groom Dry Lake (also called ‘Dreamland’) has been America’s most secret
installation since the early 1950s, where many spy planes (such as the U-2, SR71, and the Aurora aircraft) as well as stealth aircraft (such as F-117A) were test-flown. There is also allegedly a super-secret site – S-4 – at Papoose Dry Lake in the Nevada Test Site, 10 to 15 miles south of Groom Lake. Both sites have been mentioned in connection with recovered alien vehicles…Mike Hunt, for example, who held an Atomic Energy Commission ‘Q’ clearance and an inter-agency Top Secret Clearance, claims to have seen a disc-shaped aircraft on the ground at Area 51 during the early 1960s, and to have been present during take-offs and landings (though he was not allowed to observe these). Hunt believed that a highly secret programme connected with these discs – known as Project Red Light – was in operation at Area 51 at the time” (p.492).
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Compared to Area 51 in Nevada, Diego Garcia is tiny. It is, however, the largest of 64 coral islands and atolls of the Chagos Archipelago, in the Indian Ocean, south of the Maldive Islands and 2,000 miles east of Africa. Diego Garcia is an irregular U-shaped or distorted horseshoe-shaped atoll 40 miles from end to end, but less than one mile wide except for a small area in the northwest corner. It surrounds a coral-studded lagoon. It has been said that he who controls Diego Garcia, controls the Indian ocean and most of southern Asia.
Around the middle of the last century about 2,000 people lived on the islands of the Chagos Archipelago, of whom around 1,800 lived on Diego Garcia. They were the indigenous Ilois, first brought in as slaves, by the French, in the 18th century, from Mozambique and Madagascar, to work on a coconut plantation; and then by the British, in the mid-19th century, as indentured labourers from India. Most of the Chagossians were fourth and fifth generation islanders. They supplemented their living by fishing, as well as growing tomatoes, chillies and aubergines. They kept chickens and ducks; and their main pets were dogs. Their language is Creole French.
Some time in 1961, two Americans secretly arrived at the jetty on Diego Garcia. One of them was Rear-Admiral Grantham of the U.S. Navy, whose objective was to locate a suitable island in the middle of the Indian Ocean for a military and naval base. Together with a number of British government officials, they first chose Aldebra, but after their decision leaked out, they chose Diego Garcia. Apparently, the U.S. military was first interested in establishing a base in the Chagos Archipelago in 1959. In February 1964, a secret Anglo-American conference, on the subject, was held in London.
In 1965, Britain granted Mauritius, a British colony, independence on the condition that the United Kingdom be permitted to purchase Diego Garcia and most of the Chagos islands, which were formerly included in the colony, and create a new British colony or Dependency to be called the British Indian Ocean Territory (BIOT), which included some other islands detached from the Seychelles. The Labour government of Harold Wilson paid Mauritius a mere £3m for the islands. Indeed, the BIOT is the only British colony created since the end of the Second World War, on 8 November 1965, almost certainly on American insistence. John Pilger says it was a fake. It still is!
On 3 November 1966, Britain signed a defence agreement, entitled “Availability at Certain Indian Ocean Islands for Defence Purposes (TIAS 6169)”, with the United States, leasing the BIOT to America for 50 years, with an option of a further 20. In December, the agreement was witnessed by Lord Chalfont, a British Foreign Office minister, in Washington.
There was only one fly in the ointment: The Americans insisted that there were to be no inhabitants on Diego Garcia or any of the other islands; they had to be expelled or as one U.S. official put it, “the islands were to be swept and sanitized”. And what did the British government get from the agreement? In 1975, a U.S. Senate committee revealed that the British government had secretly been compensated with a discount of $14m off the price of a Polaris nuclear submarine. Neither the British Parliament nor Congress were informed of the deal.
And the inhabitants of the Chagos Islands?
The evacuation, or to be more accurate, the deportation of the Ilois began as early as 1965, and was finally completed before the end of 1972, despite Britain’s violation of United Nations articles IX and XIII, which state that “no one should be subjected to arbitrary exile”. The British government assigned the task of resettling the islanders to the Chagos-Apalega Company, coconut exporters and the only employer on Diego Garcia. They were deported to Mauritius. And they were only permitted to take with them “a minimum of possessions in one small crate”. The few last remaining islanders were told: “If you don’t leave you will not be fed.” The only ship arriving at Diego Garcia, brought no food. All their pet dogs were killed by gassing or poisoning by U.S. naval personnel. By 1975, almost all of the former islanders were existing in shacks, in gross poverty, in the slums of Mauritius. Some of the older ones soon died.
In 1978, the British government gave the Ilois £650,000 in compensation, but only on condition that they renounced their rights to return to the islands. In 1982, the government gave them a further £4m as a “full and final settlement”. The government of Mauritius was paid £12m. The money then disappeared! A joint UK-US memorandum stated: “There is no native population on the Islands.” The Ilois had become unpeople. They still are.
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In December 1970, the British and United States governments agreed to establish a communications facility on Diego Garcia, which was a secure, and far more secretive, alternative to the former NSA facility at Kagnew Station Asmara, in Ethiopia.
The first American contingent arrived, with a construction team on 20 March 1971; a radio receiver site was established in July, and a transmitter site in August. Equipment was moved from Kagnew. By 1973, the U.S. established a naval Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) station to monitor radio signals throughout the Indian Ocean. With British Royal Navy participation, the U.S. National Security Group set up its monitoring station. It became a “ground control” base for the U.S-British-Australian CLASSIC WIZARD Ocean Surveillance Satellite System network for electronic satellites, controlled by the NRO. By 1974, Diego Garcia became a major GCHQ/NSA Signals Intelligence station, manned by 200 US and 30 British personnel. Jeffrey Richelson and Desmond Ball comment:
“Although the station is officially described as a ‘joint US-British’ facility, US officials have testified that normal day-to-day operations are ‘conducted simply on the basis of the US military commander on the island informing his British counterpart’. That is all that is required” (p.205).
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Diego Garcia soon developed as a military base. Port facilities were constructed; the coral reef was blasted, and the lagoon dredged. Writing in the Times (2 June 2011), Philippa Gregory noted that an “armada of massive cargo ships the size of the Empire State Building were parked, filled with tanks, helicopters, ammunition and fuel, together with an aircraft carrier and nuclear submarines”.
An airstrip was developed on the northwest of the island, together with an airbase to the north. In 1976, a UK-US treaty regularised the construction of an “anchorage, airfield, support and supply elements, and ancillary services”. Access to Diego Garcia was then restricted to American and British military personnel, and construction workers, brought in from outside.
Aircraft using the base have included RAF Hawker Siddeley MR2 marine reconnaissance aircraft, Lockheed p-3 Orion transport aircraft and anti-submarine aircraft capable of patrolling for up to four hours; USAAF Boeing B-52 Stratofortress heavy bombers, capable of carrying nuclear devices stored on the island. During both wars against Iraq, U.S. B-52 bombers were used in attacks, and Diego Garcia was used as a refuelling point for such bombers. It was also used against Afghanistan.
It has, again, been widely reported, and since confirmed by members of the British government, that the island base has been used to hold “terrorist suspects”, and as a stop-over, prior to them being “rendered” (known as “extraordinary rendition”) to other countries for torture. (See Guardian, 1 November 2011, 9 April 2012 and 10 October 2012). These have included Libya, Morocco, the United States and the Yemen.
A particularly notorious example was Britain’s role in the rendition of the Libyan dissident, Abdel Hakim Belhaj, his pregnant wife and two children, to Muamma Gaddafi’s not-very-secret police, and their subsequent torture. Apparently the CIA’s plane carrying the family refuelled on Diego Garcia on its way to Libya.
On the 13th of December 2005, however, Britain’s foreign secretary Jack Straw, told the House of Commons Foreign Affairs Committee: “Unless we all believe in conspiracy theories, and that the officials are lying, and that I am lying, that there is some kind of secret state which is in league with the United States, there is simply no truth in the claims that the United Kingdom has been involved in rendition, full stop, as we have never been” (See Guardian, 10 March 2013).
However, Sir Mark Allen, SIS/MI6 former head of counterterrorism, stated that rendering the Libyan dissidents to Gaddifi’s intelligence chief, Moussa Koussa, “was the least we (the U.K.) could do for you to demonstrate the remarkable relationship we have built up over the years. I am so glad”. Either Mr. Straw has, or had, a very poor memory, or he was being “economical with the actualité”, with the truth! Indeed, Seumas Milne, writing in the Guardian (24 April 2013), says:
“The scale of torture, kidnapping and detention without trial unleashed by the US government after 9/11 is, as the US Constitution Project reports found ‘indisputable’. And at every stage, it’s been backed and emulated by its closest allies. At least 54 states, including Britain and 24 others in Europe, took part in the CIA’s secret ‘extraordinary rendition’ programme. And British forces have carried out plenty of beatings and torture in Afghanistan and Iraq, either on their own or in cahoots with US and local forces, as multiple reports and inquiries have now made clear.”
It has also been reported (The Guardian, 10 July, 2014) that “a US senate report will identify Diego Garcia as a location where the CIA established a secret prison as part of its extraordinary rendition programme. According to one report, classified CIA documents say it was established with the ‘full cooperation’ of the UK government” in which the UK is in breach of “a raft of international and domestic laws”. (see also the Observer, 13 July, 2014) And also “How we torture our own …
At the end of 2012, the Obama administration nominated its top counter-terrorism adviser, and 25-year CIA veteran, John Brennan, to be a key architect of its secret drone programme. Previously, in 2008, Brennan had, in the words of the Guardian (8 January 2013), faced vocal objections for “his support for the torture policy of the then president George W. Bush”.
See also “How we torture our own citizens” (Guardian Weekend, 20 October 2012). This is an edited extract from Cruel Britannia: A Secret History of Torture, by Ian Cobain. Portobello Book, London, November 2012.
Furthermore, analysts of the United States Space Surveillance Network (USSSN) on Diego Garcia, almost certainly with British assistance, track 24-hours-a-day, 365-days-a-year, more than 8,000 man-made objects now orbiting the Earth. The USSSN is responsible for detecting, tracking, cataloguing and identifying all artificial objects, including active, spent inactive, rockets and debris orbiting Planet Earth.
Of course, all attempts by the Chagossians to return to Diego Garcia and the other islands have been blocked by both the British and American governments.
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Area 51: Annie Jacobsen, Area 51; The X Factor (magazine), No.36; Jeffrey Richelson, The U.S. Intelligence Community; Guardian (4 August 1997); The CIA’s Role in the Study of UFOs, 1947-909, CIA Report (3 August 1997). Diego Garcia: Desmond Ball and Jeffrey Richelson, The Ties That Bind; Mark Curtis, The Ambiguities of Power; Guardian (23 November 1998, 1 November 2002, 17 June 2004, 2 October 2004, 7 January 2005, 8 November 2005, 26 May 2006, 7 June 2011); Socialist Standard (May 1998); Times (2 June 2011, 29 October 2011, 11 November 2011), International Herald Tribune (3 October 2011), Guardian (18 April 2012), The Observer (29 June 2014).
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AUTEC on Andros, Area 51 in Nevada and Diego Garcia in the Indian Ocean, have much in common – and some differences. All three are intelligence, military and/or naval bases. AUTEC and the TOTO, together with Andros Island, are fairly extensive; Area 51, and the other facilities in the Nevada desert, are vast; but the island of Diego Garcia is minuscule. All three were established and developed, in extreme secrecy, without any Parliamentary or Congressional oversight or knowledge. More than one president of the United States is said to have had no knowledge of what went on at Area 51 (or Andros and Diego Garcia?) before taking office. Most people in America or the United Kingdom, know nothing or very little of any of them, yet Andros was and Diego Garcia still is, a British territory. More is known about Diego Garcia than Andros because of the plight of the former islanders, the lying of British government ministers (mostly Labour) and, subsequent court decisions in the Chagossians’ favour. But to no avail.
In Andros, there were few people and no deportations. Nobody, except one old miner lived in Area 51. AUTEC is conveniently located in a nominally foreign country, the Bahamas; Area 51 is located in a desert surrounded by mountains, and Diego Garcia is located thousands of miles from both Britain and America, in the middle of the Indian Ocean. Independent observers and investigative journalists are more than unwelcome in all three areas and bases. They have much to hide. Andros, in particular, is America’s Secret Island.
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Any further information on Andros and AUTEC will be welcome. Corrections will also be welcome.
BIBLIOGRAPHY, SOURCES and picture credits
Albury, Paul, The Story of the Bahamas, London & Basingstoke, 1975.
Aldrich, Richard, The Hidden Hand – Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence, London, 2001.
Aldrich, Richard, GCHQ, The Uncensored Story of Britain’s Most Secret Intelligence Agency, London, 2010.
Andrews, Christopher, The Defence of the Realm: The Authorized History of MI5, London, 2009.
Bahamas, The: Charting a new course (A special report by Archimedia, London, 16 July 2012).
Bamford, James, The Puzzle Palace: A Report on NSA, America’s Most Secret Agency, Boston, Mass, 1982.
Bardach, Ann Louise, Cuba Confidential, New York, 2002.
Calvo, Ospina, Bacardi, The Hidden War, London, 2002.
Campbell, Duncan, The Unsinkable Aircraft Carrier: American Military Power in Britain, London (New updated ed.), 1986.
Coleman, Dr. John, The Conspitators’ Hierarchy: The Committee of 300, Carson City, Nevada, 4th edition, 1997.
Collins, Tony, Open Verdict: An account of 25 mysterious deaths in the Defence Industry, London, 1990.
Curtis, Mark, The Ambiguities of Power, British Foreign Policy since 1945, London & New Jersey, 1995.
Dorril, Stephen, MI6: Fifty Years of Special Operations, London, 2000.
Faligot, Roger, Les services speciaux de sa Majesté, Paris, 1982.
Good, Timothy, Beyond Top Secret, London, 1996.
Gordon, Lesley (ed.), Bahamas, Singapore, 2003 edition.
Guardian, The, “Sir Lynden Pindling” (obituary), London, 28.08.2000.
Guardian, The, “Bacardi accused of campaign to oust Castro”, 15.08.2002.
Hennessy, Peter, The Secret State: Whitehall and the Cold War, London, 2002.
Jacobsen, Annie, Area 51 – An Uncensored History of America’s Top Secret Military Base, London, 2011.
Jones, R.V., Reflections On Intelligence, London, 1989.
Jungk, Robert, Brighter Than 1000 Suns, Harmondsworth, 1960 ed..
Kwitny, Jonathan, The Crimes of Patriots: A True Tale of Dope, Dirty Money, and the CIA, New York, 1987.
Lanning, Hugh and Norton-Taylor, Richard, A Conflict of Loyalties: GCHQ 1984-1991, Cheltenham, 1991.
Marchetti, Victor and Marks, John D., The CIA and the Cult of Intelligence, New York, 1980 ed..
Paine, Lauran, The Technology of Espionage, London, 1978.
Pendleton, Steve, Power base, British Indian Ocean Territory Report (Stamp Magazine, November 2013).
Popov, Nicolas and Dragan, The Bahamas Rediscovered, London, 1992.
Prados, John, The Soviet Estimate: U.S. Intelligence Analysis and Soviet Strategic Forces, Princeton, New Jersey, 1986 ed..
Prados, John, Presidents’ Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations from World War II through Iranscam, New York, 1986.
Rashke, Richard, The Killing of Karen Silkwood: The Story Behind the Kerr-McGee Plutonium Case, London, 1983.
Ranelagh, John, The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA, London, 1988 ed..
Richelson, Jeffrey and Ball, Desmond, The Ties That Bind, Boston, Mass, 1985.
Richelson, Jeffrey, American Espionage and the Soviet Target, New York, 1987.
Richelson, Jeffrey, The U.S. Intelligence Community, New York, 1989 (2nd ed.).
Richelson, Jeffrey, A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century, New York, 1995.
Robbins, Christopher, The Invisible Air Force: The True Story of the CIA’s Secret Airlines, London, 1979.
Smith, Helena, “How arms spending broke Greece” (Guardian, 20 April 2012).
Thomas, Gordon, Inside British Intelligence. 100 Years of MI5 and MI6, London, 2009.
Times, The, “Sir Lynden Pindling” (obituary), London 28.08.2000.
Treverton, Gregory F., Covert Action: The Limits of Intervention in the Postwar World, New York, 1987.
Urban, Mark, UK Eyes Alpha, London, 1996.
Vernier, Anthony, Through The Looking Glass: British Foreign Policy in an Age of Illusions, London, 1982.
West Australian, The, “UK rearms with new-generation nuclear weapons” (18 June 2012).
Wheaton, Gene, Secret Island Spy Base 110 Miles from Florida, (Portland Free Press, July-October 1996).
William, Philip, The Last Supper, London, 1988
X Factor, The (magazine), No.36, pp.1000-1004, “Cruel Sea”, London, 1998.
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NATO FORACS Mission; Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NAVSEA); AUTEC, Copyright ©. All rights
Reserved; NAVSEA Warfare Centers, Newport (Connecticut). Includes photographs nos. 7 to 17, ©.
http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread184817/ pg 1 to 7 (Area 51 and other facilities).
ATS Server: www2. the theaovenetwork.com
See also: AUTEC. Google. 500m/1000 ft http://wikimapia.org/ and:
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The Mystery of the Nevada Triangle. More4 channel TV. 9.00 pm, repeat programme, 27 March 2013.
Bermuda Triangle: The Mystery Revealed. Channel 5 TV. 8.00 pm, repeat programme 1 April 2013
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A “More4” TV channel programme on Wednesday evening, March 27, 2013, entitled The Mystery Of The Nevada Triangle, investigated the 2007 disappearance of aviator Steve Fossett, and “…how hundreds of aircraft go missing in a part of the US’s Sierra Nevada Mountains”. The Civil Air Patrols have found the wreckage of aircraft. And there have been the usual stories of “aliens” within the Nevada Triangle, of course – presumably from Outer Space!
Also, within the same area, in or near the Hawthorne Army Depot, about 95 miles southeast of Reno (Area 20?) in the western Nevada desert, it was reported that seven US marines from Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, were killed in an explosion in the middle of March 2013. Other marines were injured and flown to the Renown
Regional Medical Center in Reno, according to Reuters.
Flying Saucers did not come from Mars or Outer Space. Nor did they originate in America or Russia, although both countries ultimately developed them, using captured German Nazi scientists.
In the early 1940s, the Nazi German Air Ministry and Air Force researched and developed Delta, triangular and circular flying discs or saucers, up to 45 meters wide.
Designed and developed by the specialists, Schriever, Habermahl and Miethe, the first flight over Prague reached almost a height of eight miles, flying at a speed of 1,250 mph. Later, in subsequent tests, the speed was double. After the end of the War, Habermahl was said to have “fallen into Russian hands”. Miethe later
developed similar flying saucers at A.V. Roe and Company, for the U.S. government. Many Nazi scientists worked in the United States.
(Source: Brighter Than 1000 Suns, by Robert Jungk. Penguin Special, Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 1960 ed., p.87, footnote.)
According to German post-war accounts, Rudolph Schriever designed and tested, in June 1942, and in August 1943, a circular “flying saucer” or disc. Furthermore, after the war, a full-scale prototype was discovered in the Hartz Mountains which had been secretly flown on 14th February 1945, despite its imminent defeat of the Nazi regime.
Schriever originally believed that all his papers, and plans, as well as the prototype, had been destroyed to stop them falling into the hands of the Allies. But, later, right up to his death in 1950, he wondered if that was true because by then there were persistent sightings of disc-like UFOs which presumably were the result of secret developments – in America and Russia – of this invention. This was confirmed, in U. S. archives, in September 1992. In fact, there were two such craft originally constructed in the Hartz Mountains, 138 feet in diameter.
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DRONES – Murder by Remote Control
According to a study by Drone Wars UK, the United Kingdom has spent more than £2bn on buying and developing military drones between 2007 and the end of 2012; and plans to commit a further £2bn for new unmanned military aircraft in the immediate future. Britain has been flying armed drones in Afghanistan since 2009. The study states that 76 countries have UAVs, but only Britain, the United States and Israel have used armed drones in military operations up to the end of 2012.
The UK purchased six Reaper drones from the United States in October 2007 for future use in Afghanistan. One, at least, is known to have crashed. Hitherto, it had flown them from Creech US Airbase in Nevada, south of Area 51. the United Kingdom’s Reaper UAVs in Afghanistan use laser-guided Hellfire missiles and bombs. The Americans, it would seem, concentrated their attack on Pakistan.
By the time this is published a squadron of Reapers will have been stationed in the UK at RAF Wallington in a purpose-built base and headquarters in Lincolnshire.
The Americans consider that Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), or Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPVs), have been an unqualified success in their war in Afghanistan – if by “success” means lots of people getting killed and injured with no risks to the so-called pilots sitting thousands of miles away, and relatively cheaply! According to the Bureau of Investigative Journalism, the United States has over the past eight years, up to November 2012, killed about 3,400 people in Pakistan alone. How many have been killed and injured in Afghanistan and elsewhere is not known. According to the Bureau of Investigative Journalism (Guardian, 13 April 2013), US drones have killed 2,772 people in Pakistan, Somalia and Yemen, presumably in the previous 12 months. The U.S. also makes drone strikes against Somalia and the Yemen from a secret base in the tiny east African state of Djibouti. Drones it seems are everywhere!
Surprisingly – or maybe not – the U.S. use of drones soared during Obama’s presidency, compared with that of George W. Bush. Up to the beginning of 2013, the CIA and the military undertook more than 400 drone strikes in Afghanistan, Somalia, Pakistan and Yemen, killing about 3,500-4,000 people and an unknown number of injured. Michael Boyle, who was a member of Obama’s counter-terrorism group prior to 2008, wrote in the Chatham House journal, International Affairs, that the reliance on drones was “having adverse strategic effects that have not been properly weighed against the tactical gains associated with killing terrorists. It encouraged a new, increasingly violent, arms race, commented Boyle (Guardian, 8 January 2013).
In May 2013, President Obama, who at least in theory “signs off” on targeted drone strikes, in an address to the National Defence University, appeared to bow to increasing pressure to curtail such strikes, while at the same time justifying them. He promised greater transparency on America’s “war on terror” (that is anti-U.S. terror, of course!). He proposed that future drone attacks should be controlled by the military, and the Pentagon, rather than CIA; and be subjected to Congressional scrutiny. Nevertheless, the President of the United States supported all previous strikes, as they were “more discriminating than other military options such as aerial bombing”. And, he could have added that using drones is probably somewhat cheaper!
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The British government has funded the development of drones at BAE Systems, and has also leased, for use in Afghanistan, drones from Israel when awaiting a new surveillance drone named Watchkeeper, produced jointly by the Israeli company, Elbit, and Thales UK.
In May 2013 (Guardian, 7 May), Nick Hopkins published a Special Report, “Journey towards drone revolution takes shape at a tiny Welsh airfield”, in which he revealed that a former RAF base, now a privately-owned airfield by Ray Mann, near Aberporth in West Wales, Cardiganshire, is used by the Ministry of Defence to test Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) – drones. Apparently, it is the only air space in Europe where drones can be flown alongside conventional aircraft.
The MoD surveillance and targeting drone, the Watchkeeper, has undergone trials at Aberporth’s West Wales Airport (WWA) for some time. Also using the base is UAW manufacturers, who fly their Delta 201 and 202, and which cover 2,000 sq miles over the sea, and 500 sq miles over, presumably, Wales.
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The first UAV was flown from Aberporth in 2004. Since then, Mann’s team has overseen the flights of more than 1,000 UAVs at the base. By May 2013, Watchkeeper has undertaken 260 test flights, supervised by a MoD team of technicians, who have built and maintained the UAVs from a hangar, surrounded by barbed wire. The MoD already have more than 600 drones – and intend to acquire many more in the coming decades.
Indeed, at least 35 per cent of the Royal Air Force’s planes are planned to be remotely controlled by 2023 – the latest generation drone, known as Taranis, can be sent to targets at long range, and defend itself against attacks by hostile aircraft. Like the U.S. Navy X-47B, it has weapons bays.
In 2014, the British Ministry of Defence admitted that a US Global Hawk reconnaissance “unmanned aerial vehicle” – a drone – flew through UK airspace on at least three occasions, during NATO exercise, from a base in Italy, before returning. The drone flew over Britain at approximately 50,000ft. The trials were codenamed “Unified Vision.” (The Guardian, 30 May, 2014)
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List of maps and photographs
New Providence Island, Nassau
Bay Street, Nassau
A Blue Hole
Bay Street, Nassau
Bay Street, Nassau
Bay Street, Nassau
Beach, Northwest Andros
Main Base Site 1, AUTEC, Andros
Lynden Oscar Pindling
Another BUILDING, AUTEC, Andros
Main Base Site 1, AUTEC, Andros
Another building, AUTEC, Andros
Command Central Building and Range Support Facility, AUTEC, Andros
Site 1, Range User Building, AUTEC,
AUTEC fixed-wing and rotary-winged aircraft at West Palm Beach, Florida airfield
Bay Street, Nassau
Ocean Haul Down Facility, AUTEC, Andros
Electronic Warfare Threat Simulator (EWTS), AUTEC, Andros
Mobile Acoustic Training
Unmanned MQ1 Predator drone on a test flight
UK Reaper Drone